AND Connector

Because AND can connect words that are far apart from one another or in different fields, searches using AND usually find more documents than searches using the W/n connector. As a general rule, use AND when it doesn't matter where your search words appear in a document. Use the W/n connector when there is a connection between your search terms and you need to find the terms near each other.

If your search terms are fairly unique, the AND connector can find documents that are related to your research. Using the AND connector can also help you get started on your research, until you begin to find more specific concepts and terms for your search. For example, if you want information about how land can be preserved in ohio using a land trust, you could use this search:

land trust AND Ohio

However, to find documents that are relevant when your search terms are less specific, you may need to use the W/n connector. For example, the following search will find more relevant documents than if the AND connector were used:

business loss w/10 tax deduction

If you're looking for a document in which the same word occurs twice, such as a court case with Marvin v. Marvin as respondents, do not use the AND connector. The following search would find many unrelated documents:

marvin AND marvin

Instead, use the W/n or W/seg connector, such as:

marvin W/5 marvin

marvin W/SEG marvin

Finding Phrases Containing the Word "and"

If you're searching for a phrase that contains the word "and," place "and" inside quotation marks. Otherwise, it is interpreted as a connector instead of a literal word. For example, if you're looking for profit and loss statements, your search request should be:

"profit and loss"

or

profit "and" loss

If you place the entire phrase in quotes, as in the first example, the system only returns documents that contain the exact phrase "profit and loss." If you place only the word "and" in quotes, as in the second example, the system returns documents that contain the exact phrase "profit and loss," as well as variations such as "profits and losses."

If you're searching for a phrase that contains the word "and," omit the word "and" from your search request and use W/1 as a connector. Otherwise, "and" is interpreted as a connector instead of a literal word. For example, if you're looking for "profit and loss" statements, your search request should be:

profit W/1 loss

Using the W/1 connector ensures that the words "profit" and "loss" appear near each other in the document.

Because abstracts are usually short, the AND connector is a good choice when searching for multiple terms. The following search in an abstract file finds a large number of documents, but the chances of document relevancy are great:

satellite AND launch!

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