The Shepard's Signal™ Indicators

The Shepard's Signal™ indicators are integrated into case law documents and provide an immediate indication of the subsequent history and treatment of a particular case. When these codes are present, the LexisNexis® research service displays one of the following signals.

Note: Not every case will have a Shepard's Signal indicator.

When a signal is generated from the Subsequent Appellate History, the system looks at the Subsequent Appellate History as a chain of interconnected events. Thus, the phrase generating the signal may be assigned to a decision in that chain that does not apply directly to your case, but may be several links in the chain away from your case.

IndicatorDescription
Red Stop Sign signalWarning: Negative treatment is indicated

The red Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's® Citations Service contain strong negative history or treatment of your case (for example, overruled by or reversed).

red exclamation point iconWarning: Negative treatment is indicated for statute

The red exclamation point Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain strong negative treatment of the Shepardized™ section (for example, the section may have been found to be unconstitutional or void).

Orange Q signalQuestioned: Validity questioned by citing references

The orange Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that the citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain treatment that questions the continuing validity or precedential value of your case because of intervening circumstances, including judicial or legislative overruling.

Yellow Triangle signalCaution: Possible negative treatment indicated

The yellow Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain history or treatment that may have a significant negative impact on your case (for example, limited or criticized by).

Positive Treatment (green diamond) signalPositive treatment indicated

The green Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain history or treatment that has a positive impact on your case (for example, affirmed or followed by).

Blue A Circle signalCiting references with analysis available

The blue "A" Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references in the Shepard's Citations Service contain treatment of your case that is neither positive nor negative (for example, explained).

Blue I Circle signalCitation information available

The blue "I" Shepard's Signal indicator indicates that citing references are available in the Shepard's Citations Service for your case, but the references do not have history or treatment analysis (for example, the references are law review citations).

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