QuickCITE® Case Treatment Annotations

A QuickCITE case treatment annotation appears below each case name in the Citing Cases section of a QuickCITE case or legislation citation record. The following table identifies these annotations and their meanings:

Case Citation Records

DistinguishedCited case is held to be inapplicable due to a difference in fact or law.
ExplainedCiting case adds to, expands upon, or interprets cited case. The cited case is not decisive, but is given some kind of consideration.
FollowedCiting case in a majority or plurality opinion applies a principle of law from the cited case. The judge expressly relies on the cited case as a precedent on which to base a decision.
Followed in minority opinionCiting case, in an opinion other than a majority, plurality, or dissent, applies a principle of law from the cited case.

Case is cited and may receive a more substantive treatment within 72 hours for recently added cases.

Cited in dissenting opinion

Case is cited in a dissenting opinion.


Citing case provides no more information about the cited case than what is available in the cited case itself.

Not Followed

Citing case overrules or refuses to apply the cited case for some reason other than it was distinguishable.


Citing case criticizes the conclusion or reasoning of the cited case, without refusing to follow it. Alternatively, legislation in force at the time the cited case was decided has been amended to the extent that the cited case might have been decided differently under the amended legislation.

Legislation Citation Records

UnconstitutionalThe cited section was determined to be unconstitutional.
Constitutionality DiscussedThe constitutionality of the cited section is discussed but was not determined by the court to be unconstitutional.
Pursuant ToThe action was brought pursuant to the cited section.
ConsideredThe cited section was analyzed or interpreted by the court.
Referred ToThe cited section is referred to with no further discussion.
CitedThe section was cited and may contain a stronger judicial treatment.
CitationsClick one of the Citations links to view full texts of citing cases.

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